Penalty for performing melachah [prohibited tasks] on Shabbat

Notes on terminology
On this page, the ruling that one who performs a certain action on Shabbat is "patur" means that he is not liable for a penalty in human courts, but the action is forbidden. [Shabbat 107a]
On this page, "Melachah" refers to one of the tasks prohibited on Shabbat, "Av Melachah" refers to one of the central categories of melachah, "Toladah" refers to one of the sub-categories of an Av Melachah, "Melachot" is the plural of Melachah, "Avot Melachah" is the plural of "Av Melachah" and "Toladot" is the plural of Toladah.
On this page, "Korban" refers to an offering brought in the Beit haMikdash, and "Korban Chatat" is a sin offering, specifically. "Korbanot" is the plural of "Korban" and "Korbanot Chatat" is the plural of "Korban Chatat."

Links

Avot and Toladot - Central forms of prohibited tasks, and their descendant formsDifferent ways in which one's violation of Shabbat might be considered "accidental"Determining liability for accidental violation of ShabbatDetermining liability for intentional violation of Shabbat